Response of Soil Testacea, Ciliates, and Nematodes to Fertilizers and Lime: An Experimental Field Study, HELMUT BERGER, WILHELM FOISSNER, and HANS ADAM, Institut für Zoologie der Universität Salzburg, Akademiestrasse 26, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria).
The effects of recommended maximum concentrations of compound fertilizer (NPK, 16-16-16; 600kg/ha), thomasphosphate (TP; 600kg/ha), and lime (CaCO3; 4000kg/ha) on the structure of the microedaphon were studied by means of a randomized block design. Three blocks of an alpine pasture were treated on June 17, 1984. Samples were taken on Oct. 4, 7, and 15, 1984. The pH of TP (x = 3.9) and CaCO3 (x = 4.9) is significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the control (C; x = 3.7). The CO2-release shows no significant changes. Testacea: The differences in the species number are inconspicuous. Only Schoenbornia humicola and Trinema enchelys show treatment effects. They are more abundant in TP than in C. The mean abundances (I) and biomasses are rather different: 1290 I/gdw, 8.2 mg/kgdw (C); 1122, 11.6 (NPK); 3162, 31.1 (TP); 1848, 17.9 (CaCO3). But only the TP-treatment increases the biomass significantly (P~0.1). Cilliates: The treatments cause no significant changes in the number of active individuals (direct method) and species number (culture method). Following mean abundances and biomasses were obtained with a culture method: 39 600, 480 (NPK); 16 700, 296 (TP); 59 300, 847 (CaCO3). Because of the wide disperson of the single data only the biomass of the CaCO3-treatment is significantly different from the control (P<0.05). This confirms the preference of ciliates to soils with "high" pH-levels. However, contrary to the testacea in TP the mean biomass is low. Nematoda: Their abundance is reduced significantly by CaCO3 and NPK. A probably toxic effect of NPK to lower metazoa is also indicated by the low mean abundance of the rotatoria. The experiment shows that the taxocoenoses react very differently to fertilizers and liming. TP and lime cause an increase of testacean and ciliate biomass respectively, whereas NPK and lime reduce the abundance of nematodes. (Supported by the Forschungsinstitut Gastein-Tauernregion, Projekt Nr. 21).
Keywords: Bodenbiologie, Boden, Biologie, soil science, Protozoa, Protista, Schipiste, Schi Piste, ski trail, run, Alps, alpine, Alpen, Gastein, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgeastein, Salzburg, Austria, Europe, Zentralalpen, Hohe Tauern, testate Amoeba, Ciliophora, ciliates, biological indicator, ecology, Wiese, Weide, Humus, Poren, Kalk Kalkung, Bodenkunde, Bodenverbesserung, Phosphor, Dünung, Dünger, fertiliser, Rädertiere, Fadenwürmer, Amoeben, Ciliophora, Ziliaten, Wimpertierchen
Dr Helmut BERGER
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