Effects of Ammonium Sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) on Soil Testacea, Ciliates, and Nematodes, HELMUT BERGER, WILHELM FOISSNER, and HANS ADAM
Institut fuer Zoologie der Universität Salzburg, Akademiestrasse 26, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria).
High amounts of ammonium sulphate
(AS) are used occasionally to stabilize the snow-cover of ski
trails. Hence, we treated 3 sites of an alpine pasture with 100
(1), 400 (2) and 1200 (3) kg AS/ha on June 13, 1983. On July
5, Sep. 5, and Oct. 18, 1983 samples were taken. Testacea:
There were no conspicuous differences in the species number.
The abundances were always rather similar at the fertilized sites,
but showed inverse dynamics to the control (c). Although all
sites shared equal abundances on average, the biomass was 60%
higher in (3) than at the other sites, due to the higher dominance
of Centropyxis aerophila var. sphagnicola, a larger
species. Contrary, CHARDEZ et al. (Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol, 1972,
9, 185-196) reported a 2/3 loss of testacean biomass three years
after urea application. The average ratio of full:empty tests
was 1:1 at (1), (2) and (c), whereas it was 1:1,4 in (3). This
suggests an increased turnover at this site. Ciliata (culture
method!): Qualitative changes were inconspicuous and independent
from the AS concentration. On Oct. 18, the abundances at the
treated sites were 2-3 times higher than at the control plot.
VISWANATH and PILLAI (J. Ind. Inst. Sci., 1977, 59, 113-120)
found more ciliates in soils fertilized with superphosphate too.
Nematoda: On July 5, they showed a remarkable quantitative
decrease, perhaps due to a toxic effect of the fertilizer, but
on Oct. 18 three times higher values were obtained at the fertilized
sites. This pilot study suggests that "normal" concentrations
of AS do not effect the soil protozoa. Only high amounts of this
fertilizer cause changes in the community structure of the micro-edaphon.
Keywords: Düngung, Stickstoff, Sulfur, Schneezement, Bodenbiologie, Boden, Biologie, soil science, Protozoa, Protista, Schipiste, Schi Piste, ski trail, run, Alps, alpine, Alpen, Gastein, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgeastein, Salzburg, Austria, Europe, Zentralalpen, Hohe Tauern, testate Amoeba, Ciliophora, ciliates, biological indicator, ecology, Wiese, Weide, Humus, Schifahren, Schisport, Präparierung, Piste, slope, Fadenwürmer, Rädertiere, eutropication
Dr Helmut BERGER
Consulting Engineering Office for Ecology - Technisches Büro für Ökologie
Radetzkystrasse 10, 5020 Salzburg, Austria, Europe
Phone +43-(0)662-432538; Fax +43-(0)662-443139; email email@example.com; http://www.protozoology.com