Ciliatostasis and Its Disruption by Human Influence, GABRIELE LÜFTENEGGER, WILHELM FOISSNER, HELMUT BERGER, and HANS ADAM, Institut für Zoologie der Universität Salzburg, Akademiestrasse 26, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)
To demonstrate the nullification of ciliatostasis, the effect of the organic fertilizer Biosol (B; dried fungal mycelium) was studied. A smoothed ski-run was fertilized every year in July since 1982. For comparison, an undisturbed pasture (NV) and a smoothed ski-run without any treatment (PL) were examined. The investigations took place in the Austrian Central Alps (2800 m above sea level) in October 1985. The mean abundance and biomass of active ciliates in B (331.7; 15.9 µg/g dry mass) are significantly higher (P<0.05) than in PL (3.1; 0.2) and NV (2.3; 0.1). Total numbers of species obtained with a culture method are highest in NV (44; B 36; PL 31). These findings indicate that the ciliates in natural soils are restricted in growth and excystation (= ciliatostasis). With the culture method air-dried soil is remoistened. This procedure causes the destruction of plant biomass and the liberation of nutrients. This might be responsible for the increased cyst "germination". However, in undisturbed soils, nutrient addition is not enough to annul ciliatostasis (BERGER et al., Pedobiologia, in press). Our experiments show that the removal of the old, evolved topsoil is necessary for the nullification of ciliatostasis. The low number of active ciliates in the unfertilized, smoothed PL plot suggests that the fertilizer is not the primary agens for the nullification. It provides perhaps only the food for the organisms via increased bacterial activity. (Supported by Fa. Biochemie, Kundl, and the "Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Projekt Nr. 5889").
Keywords: Bodenbiologie, Boden, Biologie, soil science, Protozoa, Protista, Alps, alpine, Alpen, Gastein, Bad Gastein, Bad Hofgeastein, Salzburg, Austria, Europe, Zentralalpen, Hohe Tauern, testate Amoeba, Ciliophora, ciliates, biological indicator, ecology, Wiese, Weide, Humus, Poren, Kalk Kalkung, Bodenkunde, Bodenverbesserung, Phosphor, Dünung, Dünger, fertiliser, Rädertiere, Fadenwürmer, Amoeben, Ciliophora, Ziliaten, Wimpertierchen
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